Nortan_IMTP

April 16, 2019 | Author: ypatels | Category: Distillation, Chemistry, Physical Sciences, Science, Industries
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column packing internals...

Description

IMTP High-Performance Random Packing  ® 

Norton Chemical Process Products Products Corporation



An Overview of Intalox ®  High-Performance Systems.

A t N orton C hem ical P rocess P rod ucts C orporation, an Intalox® H ighP erform ance S ystem is an entire packed tow er — a tow er w hich contains w ell-m atched com po nents for optim aldistillation, absorption or stripping perform an ce. W e callour high -perform ance system s INTALOX  becau se this w ell-respected trad em ark rep resents the p red ictab le and reliab le p erform an ce of thousan ds of N orton-packed tow ers in service w orldw ide. In every Intalox H igh-P erform ance S ystem , you w illfind a superior N orton tow er packing and a carefully selected liquid and/or vapor distributor, engineered to assure sp ecific distribution levels.

Intalox ®  High-Performance Structured Packing (B ulletin IS P -2) P rovides m axim um pred ictab le fractionation efficiencies.



C om bines high cap acity and low pressu re d rop per theoretica lstag e.





Features a un ique doub le-corrug ated sheet co nstruction.

Ceramic, Plastic and Metal Random Packings (B ulletins C TP -1, P TP -1 and M TP-1)



P aten ted sheet surface texturing im proves separation efficiency.



S ad dles, pallring s a nd R asch ig rings.

Intalox ®  Snowflake ®  High-Performance Plastic Packing (B ulletin IS P P -1R )



A sso ciated tow er internals.















P rovides greater cap acity and efficiency than fractionation trays and other rand om packing s. E xhibits ap proxim ately 40 % low er pressure d rop than eq ual-sized pallrings. M inim izes liquid residence tim e through low liquid hold-up. Q uickly installed; requires m inim al changes in existing vessels; structuralstrength allow s p acking dep ths u p to 15 m (50 ft) or m ore.

Hy-Contact™ Fractionation Trays (B ulletin FT-2)  Valve, si eve an d bubblecap trays.





IMTP ®  High-Performance Random Packing

Other Norton mass transfe r products 

O ptim izes ab sorption an d stripping tow ers. C om bines high cap acity w ith h igh efficiency in one p acking size. P rovides low er pressure d rop than 90 m m (3.5 in.) plastic packing s. Exh ibits greater efficiency than other 38 m m (1.5 in.) plastic packing s.

Intalox ®  Liquid and Vapor Distributors (B ulletin TIG -1) 

E ach d esign is based on N orton’ s rating system for quantifying distribution uniform ity.



W ith Intalox d istributors, packing perform anc e is ind ep endent of tow er diam eter and bed de pth.



Intalox distributors are essentialin tow ers req uiring m an y stag es w ith low H ETP.



Intalox d istributors are available in pan-type, deck-type and troug htyp e construction.

S tan dard o r cartridge assem bly.

Grid-Type Packing (B ulletin IG -1) 

P rovides great structured stren gth and fouling resistance.

Liquid/Liquid Extraction Tower Internals (B ulletin TIG -1) 

Feed pipes an d disp ersion plates to acco m pany various p ackings.

Denstone ®  Catalyst Bed Support Media (B ulletin D EN -1) 

A vailable in a variety o f sizes and ceram ic m aterials.



IMTP Packing Performance.

IM TP packing is applicable in as broad a range o f services as any m ass transfer device. It is h eavily used in distillation tow ers — from deep vacuum tow ers, w here its low pressure drop is crucial, to high-pressure tow ers, w here its capacity easily su rpasses that of trays. M an y ab sorption and stripping tow ers, esp ecially those aim ing for high cap acity or m an y stag es, rely on IM TP packing. The low pressure d rop of IM TP packing contributes to its success in heat transfer tow ers, such as olefin plan t que nch colum ns.

IMTP Packing Performance Under Uniform Liquid and Vapor Distribution

To provide insight into the highperform an ce operating ch aracteristics of IM TP packing , co nsider the packing perform ance curve. In a distillation system , uniform liquid and vapor distribution causes the H ETP to b e nearly ind ep endent of liquid an d vapor rates. A t high vap or rates, how ever, the pac king exhibits a region of im proved efficiency (low H E TP ) w here high vapor turbulenc e influences the liquid surfaces and im proves the m ass tran sfer. N orton d efines tw o p acking prop erties from a p erform an ce cu rve: 1.The S ystem B ase H ETP of a packing, w hich is the flat H E TP value produced by un iform distribution. 2.The E fficien t C ap acity of a p acking, w hich is the g reatest vapor rate at w hich the packing stillm aintains the System B ase H ETP.

   t   )   e   n    t   e    l   a    l   a    P   v    i    l   u  a   q   c    i    E    t    t   e    h  r   g  o    i   e   e    h    T    H    (   a    P   o    T    t    E    H

F   l   o o  d  P   o i  n  t  

E   f  f  i  c  i  e n  t  C   a   p a  c i  t    y  

Vapor Rate

Materials of Construction IM TP packing can be fab ricated from alm ost any m etal. E xam ples of available m etals a re: C arbo n steel S tainless steel

S    y  s  t  e m 

B  a  s e  H  E   T  P  

S ince E fficient C apacity is not the sam e a s the hyd raulic capacity or flood point, N orton rates packing s b y percent of E fficient C apacity rather than by p ercent of flood. The System B ase H ETP concept raises im portan t questions: 

W hat is the S ystem B ase H ET P of a packing in a given system ? (S ee p ag e 6).



H ow m uch does liquid distribution quality affect H E TP ? (S ee pag e 1 1)



W hich liquid distributors sh ould be chosen to m ake a tow er perform near its S ystem B ase H E TP ? C onsult the Tow er Internals G uide, TIG -1.

H igh-alloy steels D uplex steels N ickeland nickelalloys Copper A lum inum Titanium Zirconium

IMTP Packing Sizes Available IM TP packing is available in six sizes. From sm allest to largest, the sizes are num bered 15 , 25 , 40 , 50 , 60 and 70 . Th e sm all sizes exhibit the best efficiency, w hereas the large sizes exhibit the greatest capacity and low est pressure d rop.



IMTP Packing Capacity.

The E fficien t C ap acity of IM TP packing in a no n-foam ing system can be estim ated as:

     

E fficient C apacity, C S C = C o  20

0.16



– 0.11

 0 .2

Capacity Correlation

No. 70 No. 60

No. 15

No. 50

No. 40

No. 25

1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70

0.20

0.60 0.50 0.40

  s    /    t    f   0.30   o    C

0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07

0.20

 C   o -  m  /    s

0.06 0.05 0.04

0.10 0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05 0.06

0.08 0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50 0.60

0.80

1.00

0.03

Flow Parameter, X

Nomenclature and Definitions L - Liqu id m ass rate G - G as m ass rate   - Liquid density L  G - G as density V - Superficialgas velocity, m /s o r ft/s

           

L X -  G

Cs -V

  G   L

 

G        L

 n g e  a   t a  R   D a

5



0.07

 ≤ 73



 ≤ 1.1

Flow param eter

m /s o r ft/s



 

- S urface ten sion, dyne /cm



- Liquid viscosity, cp

 

- Liquid kinem atic viscosity, cs

N orton routinely d esigns tow ers u p to 90% of Efficient C apacity.This lim it leaves an estim ated 11 % turn-up before the packing loses its d esign efficiency.



IMTP Packing Pressure Drop.

Th e p ressu re d rop o f IM TP packing in non-foam ing system s can be estim ated by the follow ing G eneralized P ressu re D rop C orrelation.

Generalized Pressure Drop Correlation 10.

1.5 ( 1 2 5 )  1.0 ( 8 3)  0.50 ( 42) 0.25 (21)

Values of Pressure Drop P aram eter of cu rves is pressure d rop in inc hes of w ater per foot. Figures show n in parentheses are m m of w ater per m eter of packed height.

1.0    1  .    0

0.10 (8)

     

  •

   2

  s    C   •    F   =    Y

0.05 (4)

0.1

0.01 0.001

0.01

0.1

1.0

10.0

Flow Parameter, X

 r   f/  t   e   t  a   w .   n   i  1 .0

= 1.87 m m H g/ft = 6.15 m m H g/m = 817 P a/m

Value of Packing Factor F

  i z e  S  n g  c  k  i  n m / s  a   P  P  C s  i   f  t / s   T   I  M   h e n   i n  s   F  w  h e n C  o n   t  i   F  w   i m  i  t a  m  2   t e  L   3 /  h •  /  f  t  2  a   i d  R  m  g p m  u   q    L  i

 (Average Values)

N o. 15 54 9

N o. 25 44 1

N o. 40 25 8

N o. 50 19 4

N o. 60 17 2

N o. 70 12 9

51

41

24

18

16

12

34 14

73 30

12 2 50

12 2 50

12 2 50

12 2 50

Norto n’s Packed Tow er Design  Program em ploys different values of  Packing Factor F for d ifferent liquid  rates. Average values show n should  not b e used above the liquid rate limit. For liquid rates ab ove the limit, use the  rating program or co ntact Norton for  an app ropriate F value.



IMTP Packing Efficiency.

The efficien cy of pac king in m ost distillation tow ers is exp ressed as H ETP, or height eq uivalen t to a theoreticalplate. The m ass transfer efficiency of allm ass transfer devices is system properties dep endent. S ystem properties that affect the efficiency are liquid viscosity and surface tension. The efficiency of a packed system also dep en ds on the u niform ity of liquid and vapor distribution. The concept of S ystem B ase H ET P assum es tha t a sp ecific separation receives uniform liquid an d vapor distribution. This concept is useful because it iso lates the system ’ s effect on H ETP aw ay from the distribution co nsiderations. A s a first approach in projecting H ETP values, N orton has d evelop ed a co rrelation for estim ating H E TP from the system properties. It is d esirable to co nfirm the projected H ETP values w ith test data in co lum ns having uniform vapor and liquid distribution in the sam e system or a system having very sim ilar properties. N orton h as an extensive b ank of operating data from a w ide variety of system s and can provide referen ce data to co nfirm final H ETP values up on request. The efficiency correlation applies to system s w hich (a) are non -aq ueou s, (b) are non-reacting an d non-ionizing, and (c) have low relative vo latility (less than three). In these system s, the S ystem B ase H ETP of IM TP packing for distillation an d reboiled stripping service s can be estim ated by:

   

System B ase H ETP = A  20 or

– 0.16

– 0.19

The p acking efficiency in o ther services or other system s m ust be estim ated by other m etho ds.

 e  S  i z  g  n  c  k  i  -  m m  a   P  P  A  -  i n.   T   I  M  A  m  m   B  -  -  i n.   B



N o. 15

N o. 25

N o. 40

N o. 50

N o. 60

N o. 70

27 2 10.7 29 6 11.7

33 0 13.0 36 6 14.4

40 1 15.8 43 9 17.3

52 6 20.7 57 9 22.8

61 6 24.2 67 8 26.7

75 8 29.9 82 7 32.6

  t s   i m  i   L   i o n   t   a   l  r r e  C o 

 0 .2

With Norton Intalox liquid distributors, the HETP of IMTP packing is independent of tower diameter and packing d epth.

Values of A and B

(1.78) for 

     

System B ase H ETP = B  20

N on-un iform liquid a nd vap or distribution w illcause actualH E TP values to be substantially g reater than the S ystem B ase H E TP value. H ow ever, com m ercialtow ers w ith proper liquid and vapor distribution co nsistently ap proach the S ystem B ase H E TP w ithin 1 3% . Fo r this reason , N orton design s often use H E TP values 13% abo ve the S ystem B ase H ETP. W hat rep resen ts p roper liquid distribution for a com m ercialtow er? In tow ers requiring few theoretical stages, traditionaldistributors can app roach the S ystem B ase H ET P value. C onversely,in tow ers requiring m an y theo reticalstag es N orton Intalox d istributors are required to app roach the S ystem B ase H ET P value.

0.21



0.4 cp

R elative Volatility < 3 If  > 27 , use  = 27

 n g e  a   t a  R  a   D

2.0 0.06

 ≤ 26.6 ≤  ≤ 0.83 ≤

for  > 0.4 cp   - S urface 

ten sion, dyne/cm - Liquid viscosity, cp



Comparison of IMTP Packing to Other Mass Transfer Devices.

Th e p erform ance o f a m ass transfer device is typically m easured by com paring its capacity and efficiency. A n effective device w illallow a high

throughput capacity for a g iven level of efficiency. In vacuum service, the pressure d rop of the d evice is also a m easure o f its perform ance.

IMTP packing has greater capacity and efficiency than trays, as illustrated by the following charts.

Comparison at Flow Parameter X = 0. 028 100 mm Hg Hydrocarbon Distillation 18

N o. 25

16 14

N o. 40 (18)

12

45 7

10

 n g  c  k  i  a   P  P   T   M   I

N o. 50 N o. 60

(24) 61 0

8

(30) 762

6

(36)

914

4    v e  e   i  s  e n  t   i   c  o u s (  n  ). 2   i  e  f  f  t  v a r  i m m  i  s a n g s,  6 0  %   y   a   r   t  a c  i  s p

0.03 0.10

0.06 0.20

0.09 0.30

Capacity Cs

IMTP packing out performs other random dumped pack ings, as shown below.

N o. 70

0.12 0.40

E  f   f   i    c   t   i   r   e  a  y  n  s   c   o  y  r   a 7  s   9  s  2  t    0  a  g m e m s   p  (   2  e r   6  9  . 1   0  f   5   t   .  0   )    p m  a m  c  k   (    3  i   n  0   g  0  . f    t   .  )  

0.15 m/s 0.50 ft/s

Comparison at Flow Parameter X = 0 . 69 14. 7 bar (210 PSIA) FCC Deethanizing Stripper 18

N o. 25

16 14

N o. 40 45 7

12

8

  l  v e  a   v  e n  t   i   c  o u s  i n  ).   i   f  e  f  t  v a r  i m m (   a ,  6 0  %   y s  g s   t r a  a c  i n  s p

4

610

Typ icalP ressure D rop R elationship

(30)

N o. 70

2

0.015 0.05

0.030 0.10

0.045 0.15

0.060 0.075 m/s 0.20 0.25 ft/ s

Capacity Cs

50 mm (2 in. ) Packings

25 mm (1 in. ) Packings CIS = Ceramic Intalox Saddle

N o. 60

(24) 76 2

6

N o. 50

(21)

53 3

10

 n g  c  k  i  a   P  P   T   M   I

(18 )

Typica lC ap acity R elationship

Typ icalP ressure D rop R elationship 1.47

Typica lC ap acity R elationship

1.0

1.0

1.39

MPR = Metal Pall Ring

1.14 1.0

1.0 0.85

 C  I    S 

M P  R 

I   M T  P 

1.10

0.82

0.61

0.58  C  I    S 

M P  R 

I   M T  P 

 C  I    S 

M P  R 

I   M T  P 

 C  I    S 

E  f   f   i    c   t   i   r   e  a n  y   s   c   o  y  r   a 7  s   9  s  2  t    0  a  g m e m s   p  (   2  e r   6  9  . 1   0  f   5   t   .  0   )    p m  a m  c  k   (    3  i   n  0   g  0  . f    t   .  )  

M P  R 

I   M T  P 



Design Example.

Statement of Problem : A deep bed of N o. 50 IM TP packing is to be u sed in a 2 438 m m (96 in.) ID 11.0 bar ga (160 psig) hyd rocarbon stripper. R ate the packing capacity an d estim ate its p ressure drop under the follow ing hyd rau lic loadings.

Liquid R ate - 244,940 kg/hr (540,000 lb/hr) Liquid D en sity - 544.6 kg /m 3 (34.0 lb/ft3 ) Liquid V iscosity - 0.25 cp

Vapor R ate - 76 ,20 0 kg /hr (168,000 lb/hr) Vap or D en sity - 22.4 kg/m 3 (1.40 lb/ft3) S urface Tension - 10.5 dyne/cm

Metric

The sequence of calculation is:

English

1. Tow er C ross-SectionalA rea



A

= (0.785 4)(2.43 8)2 = 4.66 8 m 2

2. S uperficialVapor Velocity G V =   G •A

V

=

3. C ap acity F actor, C s (see p g. 4)

C s = 0.202 4

4. Flow P aram eter, X (see p g. 4)

X

5. K inem atic V iscosity

 

A =

 



4

D2

  =  / ( L , g/cm

3

76200  (22.4)(4.668)(3600)

A

= (0.78 54 )(8.0)2 = 50.27 ft2

V

=

= 0.2024 m /s

= 0.6631 ft/s

2 2 .4   54 4 .6 -22.4 

0.5

C s = 0.663 1

= 0.0419 m /s

)

=



= 0.25

1 .4 0   34 .0 -1 .40 

0.5

= 0.1374 ft/s

2 4 4 9 4 0 2 2 .4   

76200 = 0.65 2

168000  (1.40)(50.27)(3600)

5 4 4 .6



0.5

X

/ 1000  5 4 4 .6  

=

1 .4 0 3 4 .0

= 0.25

0.5



168000 = 0.65 2

 

= 0.46 cs

 

540000  

/

3 4 .0 6 2 .4





= 0.46 cs

Capacity Rating: From the capacity chart on p ag e 4, C o = 0.06 1 m /s (0.20 ft/s) for N o. 50 IM TP packing at X = 0.65 . 6. E fficient C apacity, C sc (see p g. 4) 7. C ap acity R ating Cs

 C sc

   

1 0 .5 C sc = (0.061)  20 = 0 .053 7 m /s



0 .0 4 1 9   0 .0 5 3 7



0.16

0 .2 5 0 .2

– 0.11



= 78% C apacity

   

1 0 .5 C sc = (0.20)  20 = 0.1760 ft/s



0 .1 3 7 4   0 .1 7 6 0



0.16

0 .2 5 0 .2

– 0.11



= 78% C apacity

Pressure Drop Estimation: 8. O rdinate V alue (see p g. 5)

9. P ressu re D rop (see p g. 5)

Y = (194 )(0.0419 )2 (0.46)0.1 = 0 .31 5

P = 14 m m H 2 O /m

Y = (18)(0.137 4)2 (0.46)0.1 = 0.31 4

P = 0.17 in. H 2 O /ft



Case Stud y.

Question: A gas plan t deethanizer co ntains three b ed s of IM TP packing and Intalox distributors. Five sets of operating d ata w ere analyzed to ob tain m easured H ETP values as tab ulated below . Is the d eethan izer packing perform ing as it should?

Operating Data

Analysis: The averag e surface ten sion value in the rectifying section is 3.0 dyne/cm , an d the averag e viscosity is 0.065 cp . B y the co rrelation on pag e 6, the S ystem B ase H ETP of N o. 25 IM TP packing in the rectifying section is:

 

3 .0 System B ase H ETP = 330  20 or 3 .0 S ystem B ase H ETP = 13.0  20

– 0.16

 

– 0.16

 n  c  t  i o  e  S  e r  -  m m   w   T o  p  t  h s  -  f  t  e  s  d  D  e p  t  h   i z e  e   B  d  D   P S   B e   I  M  T  / c m   y n e  c p  d    o n  o s  i  t  y  n  t   i  s   T e n   V  i s c  e C o u  e  m  c  r  f a   i q  u  i d  S  t a g  P -  m .  u  S   L   E  T   P -  i n   H  r e d   H  E  T  u  s  d  a   M e  a s u r e   M e

R ectifying

S tripping

4140

7087 & 7772

13 '7"

23 '3" & 25 '6"

N o. 25

N o. 50

2.5 - 3.5

1.2 - 4.0

0.06 - 0.07

0.05 - 0.08

8.6

19.6

48 1

75 8

19.0

29.8

(1.78)0.065 = 46 4 m m

(1.78)0.065 = 18.3 in.

S im ilarly, the S ystem B ase H E TP of N o. 50 IM TP packing in the stripping section is:

 

2 .6 System B ase H ETP = 526  20 or 2 .6 S ystem B ase H ETP = 20.7  20

 

– 0.16

– 0.16

(1.78)0.065 = 75 7 m m

(1.78)0.065 = 29.8 in.

Data Summary

  i o n   t  c  e  r S  m m  e   T o  w   T  P -  m   H  E  -  m  d  r e   T  P  a s u  e  H  E  -  i n.  e   M   B a s   P   E  T   i n.   H  m    t e  e d  S  y s  a s u r   H  E  T  P   M e  a s e   B  m   e   t  S  y s

R ectifying

S tripping

48 1

75 8

46 4

75 7

19.0

29.8

18.3

29.8

Conclusion: M easured H ET P values should b e equalto, or slightly above, the S ystem B ase H E TP values estim ated by the correlation. B ecause the deethanizer H E TP values are very close to the c orrelation values, w e conclude that the deethanizer’ s pac king is ach ieving the b est efficiency that can b e exp ected .

10 

Liquid Distribution for Intalox Systems.

Liquid Distribution Quality M any researchers in the distillation field have proven that uniform liquid distribution over tow er packing is im perative for developing the fullefficien cy o f the packing. This concept, ho w ever, poses q uestions concerning liquid distribution devices:

Typic al Packed Tower Layout

 x  f l u  R e

 e d  F e

How can d istribution uniformity or distribution q uality be analyzed to  quant ify the degree of uniformity? 

What d egree of uniformity is required  for a comm ercial packed tow er to  perform sat isfactorily? 

 i p e  P  e d  F e  d  u i  t o r  u  b  L i q  i  i s t r  i t e r  D  u i d  L i m  L i q  B e d  g  k i n  c  P a  e  l a t  P  t  )  o r  p p  f e e d s  u  S  s e  h a  r  o - p  i b u t o  w  t  (   i s t r  i t e r  r y  d  e  l  l  e  R  m  G a  i d  d L i  h  u  s  e  q  B  L i  F l a  n g  c k i  a  P

 e  l a t  P  o r t  p p  u  r  S  u t o  b   i  r  i s t  r D  o  p  V a

 r  o i l e  b  R e p o r  V a

N orton h as d eveloped a d istributor rating system * for quantifying distribution uniform ity. W e rate distribution quality as a p ercentag e, w here 1 00% quality indicates idealuniform distribution an d 0% indicates a significant portion o f packing is receiving no liquid at all. The significance o f Norto n’s distribution q uality rating system is  that the rating correlates to tow er  performance. N orton has foun d that tow ers w ith deep bed s o f high-efficiency packing are se nsitive to liquid distribution quality. C onversely, tow ers w ith sh allow beds o f traditionalpacking are less sensitive to distribution quality.

*Norton’s distributo r rating system was  presented in the paper, “Liquid and G as  Distribution in Comm ercial Packed  Tow ers,” at the 36t h Canadian Chem ical  Engineering Conference in Octo ber, 1986. The paper was also pub lished in CPP  Edition Europe, August , 1987.

11

When is distribution quality important?

From N orton’ s quantitative distributor rating system , N orton defines tw o categories of liquid distributors: N orton Intalox D istributors Tradition alD istributors

90-100% quality gen erally 30 -85 % qu ality

Norton Intalox distributors are engineered for

The effect of liquid distribution q uality on tower performance is shown by this c orrelation:



High purity product distillation services

20



Distillation services operating close to minimum reflux

18



Heat t ransfer services with close temperature approach



Services with high stage count per bed

Norton traditional distribut ors are designed for t owers where fewer stages are required, or where achieving the System Base HETP of the packing is not critical. In these towers, a small amount of extra packing permits the use of a less expensive traditional distributor. N orton Tow er Internals G uide (TIG -1) presents a com plete d iscussion of liquid distribution as w ellas a co m plete sum m ary o f availab le liquid an d vap or distribution eq uipm en t.

16  g  n   i   k  c 14  a   P   f  o 12   d  e   B  r  e 10  p  s  e  g 8  a   t   S   l  a  u 6   t  c   A

20 Stages per Bed w ith System Base HETP

4

4

16

12

8

2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Distribut ion Quality, Percent

80

90

100

12 

Norton Services.

In addition to its high-quality products, N orton o ffers a ran ge o f services and technicalexp ertise to its custom ers. Software Availa ble. N orton has develop ed tw o so ftw are packages for its custom ers: the P acked Tow er D esign P rog ram and the Tow er Internals G uide and S election S oftw are P rogram . The P acked Tow er D esign P rog ram he lps custom ers size their tow er and select the proper packing for optim al tow er perform ance. Th e p rog ram calculates pressure d rop, efficiency and capacity of N orton various packing s an d provides data o n liquid ho ld-up. Th e 50 -page Tow er Internals G uide brochure (TIG -1) features m odel descriptions an d ap plication recom m endation s for a w ide range of N orton m ass transfer products. Each description includes the m odel’ s availab le m aterials o f co nstruction an d optionalfeatures. The Tow er Internals S election S oftw are P rogram allow s the user to determ ine the ap propriate eq uipm ent based o n application req uirem ents. Th e prog ram prom pts the u ser to enter application data includ ing tow er diam eter, tem perature, liquid and/or gas flow rates, turnd ow n ratio and fouling ten den cy. G iven these characteristics, the p rogram specifies eq uipm ent for optim al perform ance.

Pilot Plant. N orton’ s pilot plant distillation colum ns located in O hio are available for testing w ith custom er-supplied test system s. These tow ers p rovide inform ation on packing efficiency, capacity an d pressure d rop in the custom er’ s sp ecific system . N orton’ s 38 7 m m (15 .25 in.) ID colum n can hold up to 6 m (20 ft) of random packing , struc tured packing or cartridge trays. This tow er is constructed of 316L stainless steeland is rated for fullvacuum to 400 psia. N orton also offers the use of its 762 m m (30 in.) atm osp heric ab sorber/stripper tow er of 304 stainless steel.

Distributor Test Stands. In its U .S . and E uropean m anufacturing locations, N orton provides flow dem onstrations o f finished liquid distributors u p to 10 m (33 ft) in diam eter. D istributors are tested w ith circulating w ater w ith flow rates up to 910 m 3/h (4,000 gpm ). Individualdistribution points or sets of distribution points can be m etered to assu re all points o r areas are flow ing w ithin sp ecification. W hen ever po ssible, the tests e m ploy the finished liquid feed pipe as w ellas the distributor. These tests p rovide finalassurance that custom er need s and N orton claim s of distribution quality have been m et in the finished product.

13 

Installation Services. N orton provides field consultants to assist custom ers w ith the installation of N orton trays and packing s anyw here in the w orld. M any custom ers have averted m ajor prob lem s and saved significant tim e b y requesting on-site su pervision of their projects. In the U .S ., N orton P rocess S ervices, Inc., a w ho lly-ow ned subsidiary o f N orton C hem ical P roc ess P rod ucts C orporation, offers full-service contracting for tow er m odifications and internalequipm ent installation.

Scanning Services. N orton To w er S olutionsSM S can ning A nalysis provides gam m a scans of operating tow ers and interpretation of the results. A Tow er S olutions scan can diagno se prob lem s that can no t be seen w hen the tow er is no t operating. A scan is an effec tive tool to d iagno se p rob lem s and prep are solution s in ad vance of a sh utdow n for repairs o r m odification.

14 

Quality Policy Statement.

W e at N orton C hem ical P roce ss P roducts C orporation h ave a m ission to achieve and sustain a m arket leadership position in our core b usine sses: M ass Transfer an d C atalytic P roducts. W e b elieve our long term success dep en ds on o ur ab ility to deliver excellence in both perceived an d realized value o f our products an d services to our cu stom ers. In o ur culture “ Q uality in everything w e do”is the only accep tab le beh avior. Th e processes of C on tinuou s Im provem ent and Total Q uality M anag em ent are essential to o ur success. O ur philosophy is to im plem ent m anagem ent system s w hich provide value an d satisfaction to our cu stom ers. O ur focu s is d irected tow ard ach ieving and exceed ing cu stom er expectations. W e w ill provide p roducts an d services that are clearly o f a higher quality than tho se o f our co m petitors.

W e reco gnize that qu ality is a never-ending process of im provem ent aim ing at co m plete cu stom er satisfaction and co nform ance to their changing req uirem en ts. W e w illm aintain op en com m unications w ith o ur cu stom ers to assure tha t their presen t and long term req uirem ents are our prim ary co nsideration. W e w illdevelop and sustain our qua lity system em phasizing total em ployee involvem ent, team w ork, collaboration, break-through thinking, judicious reso urce allocation, creative problem solving, co nstan cy o f purpose, and the determ ination to succeed .

N orton C hem ical P roc ess P rod ucts C orporation, w orldw ide headquarters, sales o ffices and m anufacturing facilities are certified for IS O 9001:1994.

N orton’ s E uropean operation is approved and certified throug h B S I to IS O 9001:1994.

15  Worldwide Office Locations.

Worldwide Hea dquarters N orton C hem ical P roc ess P rod ucts C orporation P.O . B ox 3 50 A kron, O H 4430 9-035 0 Telep ho ne: 330 -67 3-586 0 U .S . TollFree: 1-888 -N O R TO N -1 Fax: 33 0-67 7-72 45

Sales Offices Australia N orton E ngineering M aterials D ivision of N orton P ty. Ltd. N yrang S treet, P.O . B ox 44 Lidcom be, N S W , A ustralia 214 1 Telep ho ne: (61) 2-649-0161 Fax: (61) 2-643-2926

Mexico N orton International, Inc. A lejandro D um as #103 2 D o P iso C olonia P olanco M exico , D .F., C .P. 11590 M exico Telep ho ne: (52) 5-280-05-22 Fax: (52) 5-280 -06-47

Main Office Europe N orton C hem ical P roc ess P rod ucts E urop ean O peration s K ing S treet Fenton, Stoke-on-Trent S T4 2 LT E ngland Telep ho ne: (44 ) 17 82 -74 45 61 Fax: (44 ) 17 82 -74 43 30

France N orton C hem ical P rocess Prod ucts B P N o. 148 R ue d e L’ A m bassadeur F-78 70 2 C onflans S t. H ono rine , Fran ce Telep ho ne: (33) 1-3490-4000 Fax: (33) 1-3490-0788

Russia N orton R ussia O ffice 440 1 G aga rina A venue S aint P etersburg 19 61 05 R ussia Telep ho ne: (7) 812-294-8530 Fax: (7) 812-29 4-8572

Main Office Japan N orton C hem ical P roc ess P rod ucts N orton K K 7, K ojim achi 3-C ho m e C hiyoda-K u Tokyo 10 2, Japan Telep ho ne: (81) 3-326 3-0096 Fax: (81) 3-3263-0097

Germany N orton C hem ical P rocess Prod ucts Th eodor-H euss-P latz 1 1 P ostfach 1 0 11 5 1 D -4040 N euss 1 G erm any Telep ho ne: (49) 2131-15 7 4-0 Fax: (49 ) 21 31 -27 56 69 Holland N orton C hem ical P rocess Prod ucts D adelgaarde 71 2723 B J Zoeterm eer N etherlands Telep ho ne: (31) 79 3 42 8 9 55 Fax: (31 ) 79 34 1 0 2 3 7

United States N orton C hem icalP rocess P rod ucts C orporation 450 1 E ast La P alm a A venue S uite 250 A naheim , C A 9280 7-1904 Telepho ne: 714 -97 0-30 00 Fax: 71 4-970-30 01 N orton C hem icalP rocess P rod ucts C orporation P.O . B ox 35 0 A kron, O H 443 09-035 0 Telepho ne: 330 -67 3-58 60 Fax: 33 0-677-72 45 N orton P rocess S ervices, Inc. 41 37 S . S herw oo d Forest B lvd. S uite 220 B aton R ouge, LA 708 16 Telepho ne 504 -29 2-18 95 Fax 504-29 2-15 19 N orton C hem icalP rocess P rod ucts C orporation 512 0 W ood w ay, S uite 900 0 H ouston, TX 77 056 -17 24 Telepho ne: 713 -62 7-76 67 Fax: 71 3-627-75 67

 ® 

Norton Chemical Process Products Corporation P.O . B ox 35 0 A kron, O H 443 09-035 0 Telep hone: 330 -67 3-58 60 Fax: 33 0-67 7-72 45

A Saint-Gobain Com pany 

© 19 96 N orton C hem icalP rocess P rod ucts C orpo ration 10 /96 IH P R P -1

This information presented h erein is believed to be accurate and reliable, but is presented without guarantee or  warranty on the part of Norton Chemical Process Products  Corp oration. Further, nothing c ontained herein shall be  taken as an inducement or recommendation to manufac ture or use any of the herein described materials or proc esses in violation of existing or future patents.

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