PAPAYA

May 9, 2019 | Author: ABID H | Category: Irrigation, Loans, Agriculture, Labour Economics, Depreciation
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PAPAYA

1.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Papaya (Carica (Carica papaya) papaya) is a tropical fruit having commercial importance because of its high nutritive and medicinal value. Papaya cultivation had its origin in South Mexico and Costa Rica. Total Total annual world production is estimated at 6 million tonnes of fruits. India leads the world in papaya production with an annual output of about 3 million tonnes. Other leading producers are Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Indonesia, China, Peru, Thailand and Philippines.

2.

2.

OBJECTIVE

The main objective of this report is to present a bankable one acre model for high quality commercial cultivation of the crop.

3.

3.

1.1 3.1

BACKGROUND Area & Production

The area under papaya cultivation in India increased by 63% from 45.2 thousand ha. in 1991-92 to 73.7 thousand ha. in 2001-02 and the production increased from 8 lakh tones to 26 lakh lakh tone tones. s. Papa Papaya ya is most mostly ly cult cultiv ivat ated ed in the the stat states es of Andh Andhra ra Prad Prades esh, h, Kar

taka, taka, Gujar Gujarat, at, Oriss Oriss

West West Be

al, Ass

Keral Keral

Madhy Madhy

Prade Pradesh sh

d

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papaya during 2001-02 State

Area

Production

Productivity

(‘000 Ha.) (‘000 MT) (MT/Ha.) Andhra Pradesh 11.7 1173.6 100.0 West Bengal 7.2 241.9 33.5 Karnataka 3.6 238.1 65.5 Orissa 10.7 217.5 20.3 Gujarat 4.4 175.1 39.4 Maharashtra 5.8 174.4 30.0 Assam 7.5 111.8 14.8 Kerala 13.2 59.7 4.5 Madhya Pradesh 0.8 39.2 49.0 Others 8.6 159.1 TOTAL 73.7 2590.4 35.1 Source : Database of National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture , Govt. of India.

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India exports Papaya mainly to Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E., Netherlands etc.

The trend in export export of papaya papaya from from India during during the period period 1999-2000 1999-2000 to 2001-02 2001-02 is

given in Graph 3. 3.

Table-2 : Country-wise Country-w ise export of  papaya from India during 200102. Country

Bahrain Kuwait  Netherland s Qatar Saudi

Quantit y

Value

(Tonnes)

(Rs. in lakhs)

125.17 148.98 90.00

19.23 22.37 10.42

142.66 737.32

22.39 107.04

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The state-wise growing belts are given in the following : State Andh Andhra ra Prad Prades esh h Assam Gujarat Jharkhand Karnataka Mah Maharas rashtra tra Madh Madhya ya Prad Prades esh h West Bengal

5.3

5.3

Growing belts Cudd Cuddap apah ah,, Med Medak ak,, Kur Kurno nool ol,, Ran Ranga gare redd ddy y Nagaon, Darrang, Karbi Anglong Kheda, Ahmedabad, Jamnagar   Simdega, Ra Ranchi, Lo Lohardaga, Ha Hazaribagh, Ch Chatra Bellary, Bidar, Bangalore (R& U), Mandya, Shimoga, Chitradurga, Mysore, Belgaum, Hassan Sangli, li, Sa Satara tara,, Pu Pune, Nasi Nasik k, Sh Sholap olapu ur, Nag Nagp pur, Amrav ravati Dhar Dhar,, Kha Khand ndwa wa,, Bila Bilasp spur ur,, Rat Ratla lam, m, Guna Guna Nort orth & South 24- Parga rganas, Hooghly hly, Nad Nadia, ia, Mid Midnapur 

Varieties Cultivated

Important papaya varieties cultivated in different states of India are given below : State

Varieties grown

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to protect the seedlings. About About 15-20 cm. tall seedlings are chosen for planting in about two months.

5.5.2

5.5.2

Planting season

Papaya is planted during spring (February-March), monsoon (June-July) and autumn (October-November).

5.5.3

5.5.3

Spacing

A spacing of 1.8 x 1.8 m. is normally followed. However higher density cultivation with spacing of 1.5 x 1.5 m./ha enhances the returns to the farmer and is recommended. High Density Planting : A closer spacing of 1.2 x 1.2 m. for cv. Pusha Nanha is adopted for high density planting, accommodating 6,400 plants/ha.

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The irrigation schedule is fixed on the basis of soil type and weather conditions of the region. Protective irrigation is provided in the first year of planting. During the second year, irrigation is provided at fortnightly interval in winter and at an interval of 10 days in summer summer.. Basin Basin system system of irrigation irrigation is mostly mostly followed followed.. In areas areas having having low rainfall, rainfall, sprinkler or drip system can be adopted.

5.8 5.8

Intercultural Operations

Deep hoeing is recommended during the first year to check weed growth. Weeding should be done on regular basis especially around the plants. Application Application of Fluchloralin or Alachlorin or Butachlorine (2.0 g./ha.) as pre-emergence herbicide two months after  transplanting can effectively control the weeds for a period of four months. Earthing up is done before or after the onset of monsoon to avoid water-logging and also to help the plants to stand erect.

5.9 5.9

Inter-cropping

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The The main main dise diseas ases es repo report rted ed are are powd powder ery y mild mildew ew ( Oidium Oidium caricae caricae), ), anthracn anthracnose ose (Colletotrichum Colletotrichum gloeosporioides gloeosporioides), ), dampi damping ng off off and stem stem rot. rot. Appli Applicat cation ion of wetta wettable ble sulphur (1 g./l.) carbendazim/thiophanate methyl (1 g./l.) and Kavach/Mancozeb (2 g./l.) has been found to be effective in controlling the diseases.

5.125.12

Harvesting and Yield

Fruits are harvested when they are of full size, light green in colour with tinge of yellow at

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The farmers usually dispose off their produce to the wholesalers and middlemen at the farm gate.

7. 7.

TECHNOLOGY SOURCES

Major sources for technology are:

(i)

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8.1

8.1

High quality commercial cultivation of crop by using improved variety

seedlings as planting material and drip irrigation leads to multiple benefits viz. •



Synchronized growth, flowering and harvesting;





Improved fruit quality;





Increases average productivity by more than 60%.

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Grand Total

1,25,000

*Cost of newly purchased land will be limited to one-tenth of the total project cost 

8.3

8.3



The major components of the model are:



Land Development: Development: (Rs.4.0 thousand): thousand): This is the labour labour cost of  of 

shaping and dressing the land site. Fencing (Rs.20.0 thousand): It is necessary to guard the orchard by

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8.6

8.6

Besides Besides,, provisio provision n is included included for power power charges, charges, protection protection of the

plantation (cost of material for wind protection and polythene bunch covers), labour for harvesting and packing/transportation charges for the produce to the nearest secondary secondary market. The recurring production production cost for a one acre orchard works out as below: (Rs.Thousand)

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