Proyecto de Produccion de Colorante a Base de Achiote Bixina

May 9, 2019 | Author: Diego Alonso Almeyda Barzola | Category: Environmental Degradation, Market (Economics), Peru, Foods, Interest
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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS FACULTAD DE QUIMICA E INGENIERIA QUIMICA ESCUELA ACADEMICO PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERIA QUIMICA DEPARTAMENTO ACADEMICO DE PROCESOS ELABORACION Y EVALUACION DE PROYECTOS 2013-I TITULO DEL PROYECTO PRODUCCION PRODUCCION DE COLORANTES NATURALES A PARTIR DE LA BIXINA (Semilla de Achiote)

RESPONSABLE DEL GRUPO ALMEYDA BARZOLA, DIEGO ALONSO INTEGRANTES DEL GRUPO CASTRO ULLOA, LIDIA SOLEDAD CORNEJO MOROCHO, JAIME MANUEL FERNANDO LAURENTE DURAND, ROD ROBIN PROFESOR ING. JOSE MANUEL GARCIA PANTIGOZO

CIUDAD UNIVERSITARIA, UNIVERSITARIA, 11 DE JULIO J ULIO DE 2013

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I.

RESUMEN

DESCRIPCION DEL BIEN O SERVICIO QUE SE BRINDARA El colorante de achiote tiene como mercado principal a la industria alimenticia debido a su gran variedad de uso tales como pigmento para Snacks, margarinas, quesos, quesos, aceites, mantequillas, etc. proveniente proveniente de la bixina. Se usa para colorear velas y candelas. En confitería se usa en la fabricación de dulces y caramelos. En la industria de helados, sorbetes y  paletas. También las ceras, barnices, pinturas, cosméticos y fibras textiles de seda seda y algodón. El aceite extraído de las semillas es la principal fuente de los pigmentos Bixina y Norbixina u orellina, clasificados como carotenoides.        

Descripción del producto: colorante annato,bixxina y norbixina. Tipo de producto ( tipo de achiote) :Punta de lanza típica % Bixina: 2.48 Forma de Capsula: Grande puntiaguda Color: Rojo Propiedad: Indehiscente (la capsula no se abre para esparcir polen o semillas Peso neto por bolsa = 1 y 10 Kg Código del producto: E160b

OBJETIVOS 1. CORTO PLAZO  

Durante el año 2014 ser productor de materia prima Durante el año 2015 pasar de ser productor de achiote a extracción directa del colorante annato y bixina y derivados mediante industrialización

2. LARGO PLAZO Durante año 2017 agregar a catálogo de productos productos al colorante de carmín carmín ( cochinilla ) 



Durante año 2023 tener clientes distribuidos globalmente globalmente gracias a la calidad del producto

IDENTIFICACION DEL MERCADO ANALISIS DE LA DEMANDA El consumo de la semilla puede estimarse actualmente en 10000 toneladas anuales en equivalentes de la semilla. Los principales consumidores son Estados Unidos (33%), Europa Occidental (25%), Japón

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Tabla 1-

El mercado para el consumo de colorantes naturales ha experimentado un crecimiento desde 1990 como resultado de la expansión de los procesos de producción de alimentos y tendencia hacia los ingredientes naturales, por lo que estos productos productos ofrecen ahora mejores oportunidades comerciales comerciales que los  productos tradicionales. ANALISIS DE LA OFERTA Las semillas de achiote por lo general son producidas e importadas dese países en vías de desarrollo, conociendo además que solo el 27% de la producción total del mundo es procesada en el país de donde se obtienen. Perú es el más grande productor y exportador de semillas de achiote en el mundo, seguido  por Kenia y Republica Dominicana. Dominicana. Brasil es un productor importante, pero pero es un importador neto. La producción anual promedio de semillas de achiote se estima entre 8000 y 11000 toneladas métricas, de las cuales el 60% proviene de América Latina, 27.4% de África y 12.4% de Asia. Perú siendo el más grande productor, produce actualmente alrededor del 35% de la producción total mundial de estas semillas, seguido por Kenia y Brasil. (Ver Tabla 2).

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II.

INFORMACION COMPLEMENTARIA

PLAN DE MERCADEO / ESTRATEGIA COMERCIAL 

PRODUCTO

Se proyecta la venta del colorante a base de las semillas de achiote en paquetes por 1kg para ventas al  por menor, y en paquetes de 10kg para las pequeñas y medianas empresas de carácter alimentario como materia prima para otros productos. 

PRECIO

Ya que se trata de un producto con alta demanda debido a los costos que implica la producción del colorante, se colocara un precio base de US$ 27/kg, sujeto a descuentos a coordinar con c on posibles compradores. 

PROMOCION

Bolsa de 10 kg se le aplicara un coste coste del 2% menos al que se encuentra en el mercado.Bolsa de 1kg costo normal establecido en el mercado Consolidar los actuales mercados, mercados, presentando un nuevo  producto de menos precio e igual calidad según según los estándares. Tener una presentación presentación de empaque sencilla y llamativa. Ferias para observar calidad del colorante. Descuentos por compras compras al mayor o por la constancia de compras de una empresa. 

PLAZA

Venta en menor cantidad al público general (bolsa 1kg) y directamente a la mediana industria alimentaria (bolsa 10kg) INVERSION INICIAL 

ACTIVOS TANGIBLES E INTANGIBLES

Activo Tangible: La empresa se encentra ubicada Adjuntos a la vía Sullana-Tambo grande, Valle Hermoso, Tambo grande, Piura. Terreno con presencia de canalización interna, parte del predio cuenta con Agua de riego canal tablazo, represa San Lorenzo. Activo Intangible: Se p ropondrá el nombre de la empresa como sigue “CORALCASLAU”, además de denominar algunos  productos con marca propia. 

CAPITAL DE TRABAJO

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FUENTES DE FINANCIAMIENTO 

FUENTES DE FINANCIAMIENTO DE ACTIVOS TANGIBLES E INTANGIBLES



FUENTES DE FINANCIAMIENTO DE CAPITAL DEL TRABAJO

III.

ANALISIS DEL ESTUDIO DE MERCADO

3.1. ANALISIS DE LA DEMANDA 3.1.1. DEFINICION DEL BIEN Y/O SERVICIO El colorante de achiote, producto que tiene como mercado principal a la industria alimenticia debido a su gran variedad de uso, proveniente de la bixina. Se usa para colorear velas y candelas.En confitería se usa en la fabricación de dulces y caramelos.En la industria de helados, sorbetes y paletas.También las ceras, barnices, pinturas, cosméticos y fibras textiles de seda y algodón.El aceite extraído de las semillas es la principal fuente de los pigmentos Bixina yNorbixina u orellina, clasificados como carotenoides.

3.1.2. DEMANDA HISTORICA Y PRESENTE El consumo de la semilla puede estimarse actualmente en 10000 toneladas anuales en equivalentes de la semilla. Los principales consumidores son Estados Unidos (33%), Europa Occidental (25%), Japón (18%), América Latina (14%) y el resto del mundo (10%). Estados Unidos es el consumidor más grande de semillas de achiote, con importaciones que varían entre 2800 y 3300 toneladas anuales. La mayoría de sus importaciones son semillas de annato, con aproximadamente 7 a 9 % en forma de extracto. Se estima que la Unión Europea consumió alrededor de 2600 toneladas en equivalentes de la semilla en 1993, seguida de Japón con aproximadamente aproximadamente 2000 toneladas ese mismo mismo año. Debido a que su uso y demanda por parte de los alimentos orgánicos, estimamos que estas cantidades  para este año 2013 hayan sufrido sufrido un incremento del 50%, por lo que estaríamos hablando de una demanda de 3500 toneladas por año, por cada gran consumidor, que en total (si consideramos solo Estados Unidos, Unión Europea y Japón) nos daría un total de cerca de 12000 toneladas anuales.

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3.1.3. VARIABLES QUE AFECTAN A LA DEMANDA a. PRECIO DEL BIEN Las semillas de achiote son caracterizadas por tener un precio diferente dependiendo de la temporada. El  precio se incrementa hasta un valor de $1300 por tonelada de semilla, luego de alcanzar este este pico, el  precio llega a disminuir hasta los $100 por por tonelada.

Tabla 7. Precios de Semilla y extracto  Fuente: Superintendencia Superintendencia Nacional Nacional de Aduanas, Aduanas, Ministerio de Agricultura Agricultura de Perú. Perú.

Luego del proceso y su cada vez mayor demanda, y luego del proceso de extracción del colorante, se estima el precio en $25/kg.

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3.1.4. DEMANDA FUTURA a. MERCADO POTENCIAL Hablamos de empresas pequeñas y medianas orientadas a la elaboración de productos de confitería y/o variados, en diversos países, siendo el principal destino Estados Unidos (que anualmente solicita 3000 toneladas de semillas y/o extracto de bixina).  b. MERCADO DISPONIBLE Existe la posibilidad de importar también a la Unión Europea, que importa una cantidad similar a Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, no se debe omitir a los ciudadanos, c. MERCADO OBJETIVO La producción de la colorante base base de achiote abastecerá principalmente al mercado europeo europeo según la Asociación de Exportadores (Adex) informó que la exportación del colorante natural del achiote y sus derivados creció 21 por ciento durante el primer semestre del año, en comparación con similar período del 2008. Pequeñas, medianas y grandes empresas peruanas y extranjeras destinadas al uso directo del extracto de achiote (bixina),o en su defecto, al uso de semillas para refinación. d. CRECIMIENTO DEL MERCADO OBJETIVO Al plantearnos una producción anual de 25 ton anuales, y un crecimiento fijado en un 10% anuales, tenemos: item ratio unidad Año 1 Año 2

Mercado potencial

mercado disponible

mercado objetivo

TM

TM

TM

10 11.00

5 5.50

15 16.50

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3.2. ANALISIS DE LA OFERTA 3.2.1. TIPO DE LA ESTRUCTURA DEL MERCADO El mercado se trata de un Oligopolio, ya que son muy pocas las empresas dedicadas a la extracción de este colorante. 3.2.2. VARIABLES QUE AFECTAN A LA OFERTA a. PRECIOS DE LAS MATERIAS PRIMAS O INSUMOS Hablar de insumos necesarios nos referimos en particular a los siguientes que son necesarios para la extracción industrial del pigmento pigmento se usa el método método acuoso, que usa usa solvente específicos para producir el colorante adecuado a un sector específico. 





Álcali acuoso: la bixina es un ácido carboxílico que, al agregarle un álcali acuoso, forma sales solubles en agua lo que hace posible posible la extracción del colorante. colorante. Aceites vegetales: extrae el colorante diluyéndolo en aceite vegetal caliente, para venderlo en forma de solución concentrada destinada a la pigmentación de algunos productos lácteos. Propilenglicol: proceso se lleva cabo en frio frio debido a su alta solubilidad que tiene el pigmento en estas condiciones, el colorante colorante obtenido se emplea para colorear especialmente derivados lácteos.

Según estudios realizados con diferentes solventes, el solvente solvente más adecuado para la extracción del colorante es el del Hidróxido de potasio, además de ser un solvente económico y puede ser recuperado  por destilación al vacío lo que implica un costo adicional. 3.2.3. COMPETENCIA PRESENTE Mencionamos las siguientes empresas que representan una competencia directa:  

Aicacolor Agrocondor

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3.3. CARACTERISTIC CARACTERISTICAS AS DE LA COMPETENCIA Hacemos mención de las siguientes empresas que representan una amenaza directa a la viabilidad de este  proyecto: 

Biocon del Perú :es un productor líder de colorantes naturales especializado en e n una gran variedad de productos derivados de la cochinilla y el achiote. Con más de 20 años de experiencia, es líder en la fabricación de colorantes naturales, atendiendo las industrias de alimentos, bebidas, cosméticos y farmacéuticas alrededor del mundo. Biocon del Perú fue fundada en 1983 como una filial de BioconBiochemical’s BioconBiochemical’s Ltd. en Irlanda. A



 partir de la adquisición de BioconGroup por por parte de Quest International (Grupo (Grupo Unilever), Biocon del Peru se convirtió en una compañía independiente en 1993. Imbarex colorantes -naturales : Es una empresa empresa ubicada en lima dedicada a la elaboración de colorantes naturales derivados de carmín de cochinilla y extractos de achiote para la industria alimenticia, farmacéutica y de cosméticos

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c. FORMA Hablamos de un producto en polvo listo para ser empleado en algún proceso productivo como materia  prima para la elaboración de otro bien. d. TAMAÑO Diversos, siendo los principales paquetes por 1kg (para consumidores directos) y paquetes de 10 y 20kg (para empresas elaboradoras de alimentos) e. EMPAQUE O ENVASE El producto será envasado en bolsas de papel con forro, característico de materias prima de la misma índole. f. EMBALAJE Paquetes cerrados herméticamente, para evitar posibles fugas y/o contaminación durante el transporte o distribución del mismo. 3.4.2. DECISIONES SOBRE EL PRECIO a. FIJACION DE PRECIOS Precio fijado en base a una evaluación de costos necesarios para su producción, financiamiento y evaluación de mercado de la competencia, siendo este precio fijado en $25 por kg.  b. POLITICAS DE PRECIO DE LA COMPETENCIA La competencia fija sus precios en base a costos directos de materias primas empleadas y maquinaria requerida. 3.4.3. DECISIONES SOBRE LA PLAZA Se estima que hay un porcentaje de público en general que busca directamente el colorante para uso doméstico. Por ellos se toma la decisión de hacer ventas en menor cantidad al público general (bolsa 1kg) y directamente directamente a la mediana industria alimentaria (bolsa 10kg y 20kg)

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IV.

ASPECTOS TENICOS

4.1. PROCESO La extracción de la bixina se da en 10 pasos importantes, mostrados en el siguiente diagrama de flujo:

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DESCRIPCION DEL PROCESO Las semillas se colocan en un extractor donde se adiciona una solución de NaOH, este proceso se repite

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4.2. TECNOLOGIA 4.2.1. IDENTIFICACION IDENTIFICACION Y SELECCIÓN DE LAS ALTERNATIVAS TECNOLOGICAS Se realizó el estudio entre las diversas formas de extracción de la bixina (extracción con agua, extracción con enzimas y extracción alcalina) discutidas en secciones anteriores; siendo la elegida la extracción alcalina como la más provechosa por las razones descritas en 4.1.1, además de no provocar la degradación de los pigmentos como los otros métodos de extracción provocan. Por otro lado, las semillas agotadas después de la extracción del colorante pueden ser incorporadas a los concentrados avícolas y piscícolas en sustitución del carophyl; ya que la semilla aun presenta pequeñas cantidades del colorante, que en el caso de las gallinas, favorece la obtención de huevos con yemas de color amarillo más intenso, en los peces toma un color salmonado. 4.2.2. REQUERIMIENTO DE MAQUINARIAS, VEHICULOS, MOBILIARIO, HERRAMIENTAS, HERRAMIENTAS, ETC

DETALLE DE MAQUINARIAS QUE SE REQUIEREN PARA EL PROYECTO UNIDAD CANTIDAD CARACTERISTICAS CARACTER ISTICAS VIDA LISTADO DE ULTIL MAQUINARIAS Caldero

und

1

Modelo RL , produccion de vapor de 38kg/h, P=2atm consumo de gas = 3.5 m3/h

15 años

Ventiladores del

und

2

Q= 5600 m3/h, Potencia

15 años

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DETALLE DE LOS EQUIPOS QUE SE REQUIEREN PARA EL PROYECTO UNIDAD CANTIDAD CARACTERISTICAS CARACTER ISTICAS VIDA LISTADO DE ULTIL MAQUINARIAS Und 1 dimensiones: Revoque 15 años Secador de (1.5cm), Ladrillo (15cm) bandejas aislamiento de poliestireno (5cm) y de acero inoxidable (1mm) und 4 capacidad para 400kg de 15 años tanque extractor semillas, 700 lt de agua y 14 kg de solucion de  NaOH Tanque para el agua de lavado Tanque para la solucion acida Bomba para trasvase Filtro centrifugo

und

2

Capacidad de 840lt de agua

12 años

und

2

10 años

und

6

Capacidad de 170lt de solucion P=0.5hp c/u

und

3

5 años

Bomba centrifuga

und

2

Caudal = 3000 lt/h, Capacidad de carga = 105 kg Caudal de 150 lt/min. Elevacion = 4m

10 años

10 años

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4.3. CAPACIDAD CAPACIDAD:: TAMAÑO T AMAÑO DEL PROYECTO 4.3.1. DEMANDA PROYECTADA De acuerdo a la creciente demanda, se estima una demanda particular para este proyecto de 50 toneladas anuales, con la posibilidad de incrementarse durante el tiempo de vida del mismo. 4.3.2. DISPONIBILIDAD DE INSUMOS Los insumos necesarios son bastante disponibles, ya estos son muy utilizados comercialmente en diversos rubros de varias empresas; ya que hablamos de hidróxido de sodio y ácido sulfúrico. Empresas tales como Qiatex, Química Suiza son perfectamente capaces de abastecer la demanda de insumos químicos. 4.4. UBICACION: UBICACION: LOCALIZACION DE LA PLANTA La empresa esta pensada para establecerse en adjuntos a la vía Sullana-Tambogrande, Valle Hermoso, Tambogrande, Piura. Terreno con presencia de canalización interna, parte del predio cuenta con Agua de riego canal tablazo, represa San Lorenzo. 4.4.1. MACROLOCALIZACION Puesto a su localización cercana a una fuente de agua, y con una cercanía cercanía a puertos, permite fácilmente explotar estos canales como vías de distribución para exportación.

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V.

ESTUDIO DE LA ORGANIZACIÓN, DE ASPECTOS LEGALES Y DE IMPACTO AMBIENTAL

5.1 ESTUDIO DE LA ORGANIZACIÓN

5.1.1 Estructura del Organigrama funcional

DUEÑO O GERENTE

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5.1.2 FUNCIONES DE LAS DIVERSAS GERENCIAS Y/O DEPARTAMENTOS

5.1.2.1 Gerente o Dueño Verifica el cumplimiento de los objetivos primeros de la empresa y de la coordinación general. Es la cabeza de la autoridad formal y del control. Es el máximo responsable,es el que toma las decisiones y las hace saber a los empleados. 5.1.2.2 Administrativo Se encarga del seguimiento económico financiero de la empresa. Sus funciones son:llevar la contabilidad de la empresa, pago de impuesto, liquidación de haberes, pago desueldos, etc. Además tiene a su cargo lo que se refiere a ventas, facturación y cobro.

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5.1.3 Planeamiento Estratégico  





Las estrategia empresarial tiene como fin insertarse en el marcado marcado de la industria de colorantes naturales y Mantener su competencia a la altura del monopolio nacional y extranjero teniendo en cuanta que el Perú es uno de los países que tiene la mayor tasa de producción de en este rubro de colorantes. Debido a la demanda extranjero por los industrias alimentarias ,textiles entre otras , se dispone de un amplio mercado al cual se dispone de necesidades proporcionada en parte por la empresa J&D Una vez logrado el objetivo de proveedor competente se optara a ampliar la variedad de  pigmentos necesarios en otras industrias industrias

a) Visión Visión a un pronóstico de 10 años tiene tiene como finalidad estar entre uno de los mayores proveedo

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5.2ASPECTOS LEGALES 5.2.1 Forma Societaria J&D según sus sus siglas tiene con inversionista principales principales a Sr. Jaime Cornejo Morocho y Sr. Diego Alonso Almeyda Barzola juntos fundaron la empresa en ddía ía 21 de julio de 2013, con con acuerdo de administración y gerencia variables en intervalos anuales iniciando este ciclo con ambos inversionistas debido a la variedad de tareas a administrar y a la especialidad profesional a la que ambos desempañan ( Marketing e Ing. Química respectivamente ). 5.2.2 Proceso de Constitución de la Empresa J&D se constituye como una Sociedad Sociedad Anónima. No se somete somete a régimen cerrado, ya que a medida que la empresa crecer, también se requerirá de inversión adicional. Cada miembro de la sociedad tendrá un grado de importancia en cuanto a sus decisiones de acuerdo al aporte con el

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5.3IMPACTO AMBIENTA AMBIENTAL L 5.3.1 Diagnóstico ambiental –  Situación  Situación actual La empresa se preocupa por el bienestar del medio ambiente, donde se encuentra el eje principal que brinda ganancias al proyecto. El terreno de cultivo se halla en perfectas condiciones para su adecuada explotación. Respecto a los residuos naturales como en todo proceso, se toman en cuenta medida adecuadas para minimizarlo. 5.3.2 Externalidades del Proyecto: Identificación de los impactos i mpactos ambientales del proyecto 5.3.2.1 Impactos Positivos Mejoras en las áreas de cultivo de la materia prima ocasionando el desarrollo de vegetación y mejora al ecosistema de la región.

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5.3.3 Plan de Mitigación Ambiental Tecnología destinada a la reducción de agentes contaminantes. Reconstrucción y creación de áreas verdes. Tratamiento de aguas residuales. 5.3.4 Sostenibilidad En base a los puntos antes mencionados, es de esperar el requerimiento de un capital de trabajo y de tipo tecnológico, el cual es respaldado por las ganancias obtenidas por el producto en mención, lo que hace sostenible el proyecto.

INVERSIÓN

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C) Capital de Trabajo Materia prima (inventario de materia prima) Promoción del producto (capital del trabajo para la comercialización) Sueldos (personal permanente y temporal) Anticipo a proveedores

17081 4000 40680 4000

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Inversión y Reinversión de Activos Intangibles

Items Gasto de

Precio unitario 4000

Cantidad inicial 4000

Año 0 4000

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6.2FUENTES DE FINANCIAMIENTO DEL PROYECTO P ROYECTO INVERSIÓN TOTAL INICIAL (requerimiento de capital) FINANCIAMIENTO FINANCIAMIEN TO DEL PROYECTO

180000

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ESTUDIO ECONÓMICO FINANCIERO El análisis económico-financiero comprende el estudio y evaluación de costos e inversiones necesarias para llevar ll evar a cabo el proyecto. El período de evaluación utilizado en este proyecto se fija en 10 años, estimándose que el período de construcción puesta en

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COSTO DEL TERRENO Y OBRAS CIVILES El análisis de este punto tiene en cuenta el costo del terreno necesario para la planta y el costo de las edificaciones construidas en el mismo.

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Titles you can't find anywhere else

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Titles you can't find anywhere else

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Titles you can't find anywhere else

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Titles you can't find anywhere else

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Titles you can't find anywhere else

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Titles you can't find anywhere else

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