TOFD Presentation

March 8, 2019 | Author: seso20081 | Category: Diffraction, Waves, Image Scanner, Nondestructive Testing, Optics
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

TOFD Presentation...

Description

TOFD BETWEEN SIMPLICITY AND COMPLCITY

BY Eng. Tarek R. Abdel-Alim Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

1

TOFD Introduction 

Time of flight Diffraction (TOFD) is an accurate defect sizing UT technique not depend on sound amplitude reflected from defect.



TOFD Uses longitudinal (compression) waves.



TOFD Pair of transducers are considered as part of AUT system arrangements ( one or two channels of the multi channel system).



TOFD could be used with both of Pulse echo or phased Array Techniques.



Sizing of defect not related to its orientation.

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

2

The Diffraction Phenomenon  Huygens'

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

principle:

GL Doha Station

3

TOFD CONCEPT & THEORY 

The Time of Flight Diffraction technique employs the use of two compressional wave transducers using angles between 30°and 70°set at a calculated distance (Probe Centre Spacing “PSC”) apart in the pitch and catch mode.



 When the compressional wave strikes a defect diffracted waves are generated from the extremities of the defect (oscillation of defect ends).



The diffracted waves are detected by the receiving transducer.

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

4

TOFD CONCEPT & THEORY The first signal received (1) is from the lateral wave. This is a creeping wave at the surface with the same velocity of the compressional or longitudinal waves. The second (2) and third (3) signals are the diffracted waves from the tips of the flaw. The fourth (4) signal is the back-wall representing one complete sound path. The signals past the backwall are mode converted Shear wave. Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

5

TOFD Transducer Arrangement

Dual

Transducer Technique. Transmitter and Receiver mounted typically opposite of and symmetrically about the volume of interest. Typically mounted at fixed probe centre spacing (PCS). Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

6

Crack Tip Diffraction

Diffraction occurs at both top and bottom tips 

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

7

Volumetric Discontinuities

Reflection

produces response from the top of the discontinuity Creeping wave produces response from the bottom of the discontinuity. Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

8

Manual TOFD Hand Scanner

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

9

TOFD Standing Wave Pattern

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

10

Typical TOFD Display

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

11

TOFD Waveform with Mid-wall Discontinuity

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

12

TOFD Depth Measurement

Constant

depth loci form an ellipse with the beam index points the focal points. Consequently, some minor error for lateral position offset. Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

13

Amplitude Independent



Depth calculations based on pulse transit time therefore, so long as gain is sufficient for detection size calculation will not change

• •

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

14

TOFD Implementation  – Weld Inspection Application

Beam

angle, transducer size, and PCS set to flood weld volume. Uni-axial scan along weld length “B or D Scanning mode”. Dead zone near test surface due to inability to resolve flaws from lateral wave. Maximum thickness (single scan) is about 2-2.5 inches. Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

15

Near-Surface Dead Zone

For

near-surface flaws, time difference between lateral and flaw is not sufficient to separate the two, therefore, near-surface flaws are hidden by lateral wave. increased PCS worsen the effect. Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

16

Improved Near-Surface Detection and Sizing Resolution



• •

Narrower PCS. Higher frequency probes. heavier probe damping (broader bandwidth). Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

17

Depth Zone Coverage

Deeper zones generally use: 1. larger transducers. 2. lower frequency. 3. lower refracted angle. 4. larger PCS. Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

18

TOFD Imaging

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

19

2-Dimensional Raster Scan TOFD

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

20

TOFD Image Showing No Indications

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

21

Creep Macro-Crack 

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

22

TOFD technique advantages 

TOFD technique offers the following advantages in comparison to radiography:

I- Radiation hazard-free area – This allows work to be performed by other personnel in the vicinity of the examination area without any radiation safety precautions. II- Fast, accurate results – This process provides information at the examination area without the need to develop film, determine radiograph quality conformance (i.e. density and sensitivity) and film interpretation. III- Less expensive than radiography per foot of weld.

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

23

TOFD technique advantages IV- Volumetric information – As opposed to radiography that provides a 2-D view of a weldment, and radiography’s detection difficulty with cracks not directly oriented to the cone of radiation, this process can provide accurate length and depth information of recorded indications. V- Permanent record – The scan image files can be saved for future reference and evaluation.

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

24

Codes and standard     

British Standard. European ASME ASTM API 1104 “19th Edition”

1. BS

7706 (1993) Guide to calibration and setting-up of the ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique for detection, location, and sizing of flaws. British standards Institute 1993.

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

25

Codes and standard

2. pr

EN 583-6 (1995) Non-destructive testing ultrasonic examination - Bart 6: Time-of-flight diffraction technique as a method for defect detection and sizing.

3. ASME

VIII Code Case 2235 (2000 Edition) Ultrasonic examination to be in accordance with ASME Section V, Article 4 "Alternatively, for techniques that do not use amplitude recording levels, ...'. This has opened the door for TOFD to be used on Section VIII pressure vessels Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

26

Codes and standard 4. In

1998 ASTM E-1961 was published describing the various aspects involved in pipeline inspection using mechanised UT.

5. In the 19th edition API 1104 they revised its description of UT requirements to include mechanised systems.

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

27

TOFD Limitations 1.

Blind area - near surface, back-wall.

2.

Weak signals.

3.

Couplant loss.

4.

Flaw classification limitation.

5.

Interpretation of defects.

6.

Sensitive to grain noise.

7.

Coarse grained materials.

Tarek R. Abdel-Alim

GL Doha Station

28

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 chineseinfo.info Inc.
SUPPORT chineseinfo.info